Frequently asked questions (FAQ)
         Date:

DEPARTMENT OF REFRACTIVE SURGERY AND LASIK FAQ 

LASIK FAQ’s 

LASIK stands for Laser in-situ keratomileusis, which is the most commonly performed type of laser eye surgery. This procedure is generally safe, effective, and has very few side effects. LASIK is a great option for many individuals considering laser vision correction for a variety of personal and professional reasons. And we are of the very few who perform LASIK surgery in Nagpur.

LASIK may not promise perfect vision, however, it is a highly successful procedure that can at the very least reduce a person's dependence on glasses or contact lenses. The lifestyle benefits can be tremendous for active and social people. These benefits can enable people to more freely pursue their hobbies, sports activities or career options.

Recovery time from laser eye surgery varies, but most patients can see significant improvement immediately following the procedure. You’ll need to arrange transportation as you won’t be able to drive until after initial recovery which requires rest from 24 to 48 hours. After that time daily administration of drops are required for several weeks. Full recovery from LASIK surgery (when you can open your eyes under water) can take at least six months.

There are two main differences between LASIK and PRK. During LASIK eye surgery, your surgeon creates a flap to access the cornea. PRK does not create a flap; rather the thin layer of your cornea is removed. The second factor is the recovery time. PRK takes a slightly longer recovery time as your eye needs to naturally rebuild the thin layer of your cornea that was removed. Depending on the eye examination surgeon decides with the procedure which is suitable for the eye.

It is an acronym standing for Small Iincision Lenticule Extraction ( SmILE ) which is a minimally invasive and innovative procedure. Instead of the laser ablation of the cornea, only minimal amount is lasered to create a lenticule which is then extracted through a keyhole corneal incision (compare 2-4 mm to 20 mm used in LASIK).

LASIK is designed to allow you to discontinue the use of corrective lenses. In some patients with high refractive errors and in those over 40 years of age, corrective lenses may still be required. In some patients however, it may be possible to perform a second refractive procedure to correct a residual refractive error.

LASIK is a surgical procedure performed on the cornea, the front surface of the eye. It is crucial that patients are well educated on the potential benefits and risks of this procedure. As with any type of surgery risks are involved. After your pre-operative evaluation you will have a good idea about the risks and what they imply to your specific situation. It is important to discuss any concerns with your surgeon and weigh the risks and potential benefits. Each patient's vision is different and different treatment options are available in order to give the best possible results. The only way to determine if LASIK is right for you is to come in and discuss your options with us at Madhav Netralaya which is the best eye hospital in Nagpur.

DEPARTMENT OF LOW VISION SERVICES FAQ

Low Vision FAQ’s

Best corrected vision (using glasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery) which is insufficient to do what you want to do.

Vision loss occurs from a variety of causes. Some conditions are medical. Examples are Macular Degeneration , Diabetic Retinopathy , Cataracts ,and Glaucoma . Some conditions are genetic. Examples include Stargardt’s Disease , Retinitis Pigmentosa , and albinism. Other causes can be congenital or traumatic.Low Vision Doctors are more concerned with the amount of remaining vision, not the cause of the loss itself.

An advanced low vision examination is quite different from a regular eye examination. It is a longer examination usually lasting 1-2 hours. It is a “vision and function” examination; therefore medical tests such as dilation are usually omitted. The first part of the advanced low vision examination is conversing with the patient to find out how the reduced vision is affecting their life. The “wish list” is created so the doctor understands what the patients’ goals are. The second part is extensive vision testing. Careful refraction is performed to find out if a new “regular” eyeglass prescription will help. Part three works with magnification, illumination and other optical and non-optical advanced low vision devices. The doctor must determine the best form and level of magnification needed for the person to perform the desired tasks. Telescopes, microscopes, and prisms, with varying levels of magnification and strength as well as other magnification devices are presented to the patient. Illumination levels must be determined as lighting plays a major role in vision. Part four is another conversation with the patient to determine the best form and level of magnification for that particular person’s task requirements.

Advanced Low Vision doctors have been trained in the physics, optics and use of high powered lenses and lens systems. They understand the principles of magnification, field of view, depth and of focus. They also have a working knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of the multitude of low vision glasses, magnifiers, electronic and non-optical devices available. An advanced low vision eye doctor understands how to work with patients and families who can be extremely upset, fearful, and even depressed. It’s a doctor who has the patience and time to explain the eye and vision condition and what the future may hold for patients who may be confused, misinformed and/or have an unrealistic view of their future. An advanced low vision eye doctor has compassion and empathy for what the patient and family is going through as well as the knowledge, resources and experience to help them adjust to the difficult situation. Advanced low Vision doctors know how to analyze a task according to the amount of vision, lighting, working distance and field of view needed for completion. They are expert as designing low vision glasses to meet the needs of the patient. For meeting your expectations of a good treatment it is highly recommended that you approach the top eye hospital in Nagpur for the best treatment such as Madhav Netralaya.

It usually takes two to four weeks for specialized glasses to be fabricated. Arrangements can be made to have them sooner in some circumstances. If a person has a special event happening and needs the glasses, the lab will usually cooperate and also we have an inbuilt pharmacy and optical shop at Madhav.

During the evaluation, the patient will use actual low vision telescope, microscope and prismatic glasses on the tasks desired. The doctor and the patient will see that they work BEFORE they are ordered. This will be done again when the patient picks up the glasses.

Almost always, prescriptions and magnification levels can be changed without the need for a whole new pair of glasses.

DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL OPHTHALMOLOGY FAQ’s  

Refractive Error FAQ’s

Refractive errors occur when the image is not clearly focused on the retina. Retina is the most sensitive part of the eye which captures the image and sends the signal to the brain. Just like a film in the camera. The length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens can cause refractive errors.

Refraction is bending of the light rays as they pass through one transparent object to another. Refraction occurs when light rays are bent (refracted) as they pass through the cornea and the lens. The light is then focused on the retina. The retina converts the light-rays into message that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain. The brain interprets these messages into the images we see

The most common types of refractive errors are myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.

Myopia (nearsightedness) is a condition where closer objects appear clearly, while objects far away appear blurry. In myopia, the eyeball size is large so the light comes to focus in front of the retina instead of on the retina.

Hypermetropia (farsightedness) also called as Hyperopia, is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects that are near. However, people experience hyperopia differently. Some people may not notice any problems with their vision, especially when they are young. For people with significant hyperopia, vision can be blurry for objects at any distance, near or far. In hyperopia, the eyeball size is small so the light comes to focus behind the retina instead of on the retina.

Astigmatism is a condition in which the eye does not focus light evenly onto the retina. This can cause images to appear blurry and stretched out. It mainly depends on the curvature of the cornea. Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which the ability to focus near objects becomes more difficult. Our lens has a property to change its shape to focus the near and distance object. As the eye ages, the lens can no longer change shape enough to allow the eye to focus close objects clearly. This is term as presbyopia.

Presbyopia affects most adults over age 40 years. Other refractive errors can affect both children and adults. Kids can have refractive error if their parents or grandparents are having refractive errors.

Blurred vision is the most common symptom of refractive errors. Other symptoms may include:

  • Double vision
  • Haziness
  • Glare or halos around bright lights
  • Squinting
  • Headaches
  • Eye strain
  • Squeezing of eyes
  • Recurrent infections or swelling of the lids

Refractive errors can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery.

Eyeglasses are the simplest and safest way to correct refractive errors. Your eye care professional can prescribe appropriate lenses to correct your refractive error and give you optimal vision.

Contact Lenses work by becoming the first refractive surface for light rays entering the eye, causing a more precise refraction or focus. In many cases, contact lenses provide clearer vision, a wider field of vision, and greater comfort. They are a safe and effective option if fitted and used properly. It is very important to wash your hands and clean your lenses as instructed in order to reduce the risk of infection.

Refractive Surgery aims to change the shape of the cornea permanently. This change in eye shape restores the focusing power of the eye by allowing the light rays to focus precisely on the retina for improved vision. There are many types of refractive surgeries. Most Common type of refractive surgeries are LASIK, epiLASIK and PRK. Madhav Netralaya is one such hospital which provides refractive surgery services in Nagpur.

Presbyopia FAQ’s

Presbyopia in Greek means "old eye."

Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which the ability to focus near objects becomes more difficult. Our lens has a property to change its shape to focus the near and distance object. As the eye ages, the lens can no longer change its shape enough to allow the eye to focus close objects clearly

People in their early to mid 40s or sometimes a bit younger usually begin to have trouble reading fine print

So when you find yourself holding your book farther away in order to read comfortably, this is an early sign of presbyopia. You'll also begin to need more light to read comfortably.

Even with presbyopia, nearsighted people usually can read without their glasses. But once you have presbyopia and you put on your single-vision glasses or contact lenses to bring distant objects into focus, you lose your sharp near vision.

By the time you reach your 40s, you can't escape presbyopia. However, some people don't notice reading problems until they reach their late 40s or even 50s.

Different types of lenses can provide treatment for presbyopia.

If you never required vision correction before, a simple pair of reading glasses can help you read or perform near vision tasks.

If you elect to wear over-the-counter "cheaters" (as they sometimes are called), be sure and have regular eye exams so you can be watched for cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and other eye diseases.

Your eye doctor also can prescribe bifocals or progressive eyeglass lenses, which have different "zones" that let you see at multiple distances.

Line-free progressive lenses are the multifocal correction of choice for most people with presbyopia. These lenses allow you to see clearly at all distances without visible "bifocal lines" in the lenses.

For the best vision, comfort and appearance, choose progressive lenses with anti reflective coating. AR coating eliminates distracting reflections in your glasses that can interfere with night driving.

If you have special occupational needs, special-design multifocal lenses are available for specific uses. For example, auto mechanics, electricians and painters often need to see near objects above their head clearly. A special multifocal lens called the "double-D bifocal" is perfect for this need. This technology has advanced considerably in recent years, providing an excellent option in both soft and rigid gas permeable lens modes.

There aren't any perfect treatments for presbyopia yet. This progressive lens has a typical configuration of distance, intermediate and near zones.

But vision correction surgery could free you of the need to wear eyeglasses or contact lenses, or at least make you less dependent on them.

For example, you could undergo a surgical procedure such as LASIK and have one eye corrected for distance vision and the other eye corrected for near vision. Madhav Netralaya is one such eye hospital which performs LASIK eye surgery in Nagpur.

But you need to work with your eye doctor to make sure you can adapt to this kind of vision, known as monovision. It's usually best to try monovision with contact lenses before having a more permanent surgical procedure.

You also can choose to wear contact lenses for monovision as a long-term solution instead of surgery if you prefer not to wear bifocal or multifocal contact lenses.

DEPARTMENT OF CATARACT FAQ

CATARACT FAQ

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. The formation of a cataract is a natural process that usually takes place over time.

When you are born, the lens of the eye is clear and jelly-like. The lens sits behind the iris (the colored part of the eye). Along with the cornea (the clear “front window” of the eye), the lens helps to focus light rays onto the retina (the back of the eye). As time passes, the lens begins to stiffen and becomes cloudy.

  • Clouding or blurring of vision.
  • Glare from headlights, lamps, or sunlight.
  • Halos around lights.
  • Poor night vision
  • Colors seem faded.
  • Double vision.
  • Frequent changes to your eyeglass or contact lens prescription.

Almost everyone will develop cataracts. Usually, patients will notice changes in their vision due to cataracts after the age of 65. Other contributing factors are medical problems such as diabetes, injury to the eye, medications especially steroids, radiation, long-term unprotected exposure to sunlight and patients that smoke or drink excessively.

The symptoms of early cataracts may be treated with a new eyeglass prescription, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses or a magnifying lens. If these measures do not help then surgery would be the only effective treatment.

The natural lens of the eye has a certain power or strength. Cataract surgery removes the natural lens and the implant replaces the natural lens. Without a lens implant, thick glasses (cataract glasses) or a contact lens would be necessary for vision correction.

We perform Laser Cataract Surgery using the femtosecond laser in addition to performing the traditional cataract surgery. Madhav Netralaya is the best eye hospital in Nagpur who uses this state-of-the-art technology for the surgery

DEPARTMENT OF CORNEA FAQ

Dry Eye FAQ’S

Dry eyes are most commonly caused from an individual not being able to produce healthy tears. This is NOT affected by a change of seasons. Many people feel more symptoms during allergy season, or warmer months when they are in a dry air conditioned environment. At such time quickly take medical help.

A general guideline is that eye exams should be performed annually to check the health and wellness of your eyes. If you feel grittiness and burning sensation in your eyes please contact your ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

Testing for dry eyes varies from person to person. Most commonly, our doctors will use special equipment to measure how wet your eyes get with each blink you take. More extensive testing can measure how quickly those tears evaporate. Specialists can measure the tear production on special paper strips and start treatment accordingly.

Weepy eyes that are always watery is actually a BIG indicator of dry eye syndrome. When our tears don’t have enough lubrication or mucous they wash away from the eye like water on a feather. Our body’s response to this is to keep flooding the eye with more tears to keep it from drying out. The correct treatment for this is to introduce more oil and mucous back into the tear system.

Studies show a direct link to excessive computer usage and dry eyes. There are other factors involved as well such as genetics, diet, medications, sleep, and other health factors

Consistent “eye breaks” for those who work on a computer for more than 4 hours a day is good practice. These breaks should be taken every 20 minutes taking time away from the screen for at least 20 seconds. Frequent blinking is important when we are continuously working on computers. It is vital that people have an annual eye exam, even if they don’t wear glasses. Our eyes are precious and it’s important that they are well taken care of.

Meibomian glands are present in our lids. The meibomian glands produce the oils that we need to keep eyes lubricated and to keep our tears from evaporating too quickly between blinks. MGD leads to people not producing the right “kind” of tears. There are many different kinds of problems people have with their tear quality. Ask your ophthalmologist during your yearly eye exam to find out if you have dry eyes.

Eye Infection FAQ’s

Eye infections can be a common ailment which can be treated easily. While the best course of action is to consult your doctor if you think you have an eye infection, there are some other things you can do to prevent infections from occurring in the first place, and to ease your symptoms when a diagnosis is confirmed.

Infections can be caused by a variety of different sources, including bacteria, fungi or viruses. Most of these are transferred by touching your eye after coming in contact with one of these sources. This means that frequent hand-washing is essential. You should make sure you wash your hands with soap and warm water every time you use the toilet, as well as when you use public transportation. You should also take care to wash your hands - or use an anti-bacterial hand sanitizer - frequently if you have a cold or are treating another infection, as you do not want to transfer this to your eye.

The symptoms of an eye infection can vary depending on the infection cause and type, but in general, you may experience itching, redness and discomfort. Some people notice swelling around their eye and you may also find that your eyes are either extra-dry or particularly watery. Some people also notice a discharge, blurred vision or an increased sensitivity to light. Because many eye infections are contagious - especially conjunctivitis, or pink eye, which is among the most common types of eye infection - you have to take precautions to avoid spreading it to other people, or to your other eye.

The most important reason to visit a eye specialist is to determine what type of eye infection you have. This will help them to advise the right type of treatment for you. Make sure to use a clean washed cloth each time to avoid spreading the infection further. Best way is to use tissue paper to wipe your tears or discharge and throw it in the trash. The most common type of treatment for an eye infection is drops, which are usually administered to the affected eye several times a day. Ointments are also available, and if you are experiencing considerable swelling, your ophthalmologist may also recommend a type of steroid drop that acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. If you have a more serious or persistent eye infection, oral medications may also be prescribed. Antiviral or antibiotic medications can help to combat eye infections - especially if you experience them on a recurring basis.

The types of bacterial eye infections include that of bacterial, fungal and viral.

Pink eye, or conjunctivitis. Conjunctivitis, also called "pink eye," is a common, highly contagious eye infection that often is spread among children in day care centers, classrooms and similar environments. Teachers and day care workers also are at increased risk of pink eye when they work in close quarters with young children. Common infectious conjunctivitis types often have viral or bacterial origins. Infants also can acquire conjunctival eye infections (gonococcal and chlamydial conjunctivitis) during birth when a mother has a sexually transmitted disease.

Other viral eye infections (viral keratitis). Besides common pink eye, other viral eye infections include ocular herpes, which occurs with exposure to the Herpes simplex virus.

Fungal keratitis. Fungal keratitis occurs when there is injury with any vegetative matter like , stick, leave, or hay. More commonly seen in farmers. In fungal keratitis pain is not that severe but redness and discharge is more. Fungal keratitis needs immediate treatment.

Acanthamoeba keratitis. Contact lens wearers are at increased risk of encountering parasites that can invade the eye and cause a serious sight-threatening infection called Acanthamoeba keratitis. This is why contact lens wearers should observe certain safety tips, such as avoiding swimming while wearing contacts.

Endophthalmitis. When eye infections spread inside the eye invading all the layers of the eye it is called as endophthalmitis. This is an emergency and need urgent intervention. If not treated in time you may lose the eyesight permanently.. This type of infection can occur with a penetrating eye injury or as a rare complication of eye surgery such as cataract surgery.

If you encounter any type of eye infection then consult a top eye specialist in Nagpur urgently to avoid any type of permanent damage to your eyes.

Eye Donation FAQ’s

  • Eye donors could be of any age group or sex.
  • ALL CAN DONATE EYES.
  • People using glasses, contact lens, eyes operated for cataracts or any eye surgery except corneal problem, people having diabetes, Heart problem , kidney problem , neuro problem can donate eyes.
  • Person with AIDS, Hepatitis B and C, Rabies, Septicaemia, Acute leukemia (Blood cancer), Tetanus, Cholera, and infectious diseases like Meningitis and Encephalitis CAN NOT donate their eyes.
  • Persons more than 90yrs of age can donate eyes but the eyes can be used only for research purpose.

The eye bank is a nonprofit organization and obtains, medically evaluates and distributes eyes which are donated by humanitarian citizens for use in cornea transplants, scleral reconstruction, research and education.

Donated human eyes and corneal tissue are necessary for the preservation and restoration of sight and are used for transplantation, research and education.

Cornea transplant is the surgical procedure which replaces a disc-shaped segment of an impaired cornea with a similarly shaped piece of a healthy donor cornea. Cornea transplant operations successfully restore the recipient's vision.

Cornea transplant is usually performed within 4 days after donation, depending upon the method of cornea preservation

The surgical removal of the eye tissue is performed soon after death, ensuring the tissues are in the best possible condition for transplant.Eye donation should be done 4 hours after death. The removal causes no disfiguration,It usually takes 20-30 minutes for the whole procedure. therefore an open body funeral is still an option for the donor family. Family should give the detailed history of the deceased including the medications. Patients on blood thinners might require little longer time for eye donation procedure.

No. Only the cornea and the sclera (white part of the eye) can be transplanted. The whole eye can be used for valuable research on eye diseases and treatments and education.

Potential donors are carefully screened for medical suitability and high risk factors. HIV, Hepatitis B and syphilis tests are done before any tissue is released for surgery. If any tissue is deemed unsuitable for transplant, the information is then scrutinized for the possibility of use of research. Our primary concern is the safety of the potential recipients, eye bank staff and researchers.

No. Eye tissue is procured within hours of death, so families may proceed with funeral arrangements as planned.

No. Great care is taken to preserve the appearance of the donor. No one will be able to notice that eyes have been donated. Families may even hold a viewing of the deceased person.

In addition to fulfilling your loved one's wishes, donation can offer comfort to a grieving family. Just knowing that a small part of our loved one is going in life, helping someone see this world is a consolation, something to hold on to in times of sorrow.