The cornea is your eye’s clear, protective outer layer. Along with the sclera (the white of your eye), it serves as a barrier against dirt, germs, and other things that can cause damage. Fun fact: Your cornea can also filter out some of the sun's ultraviolet light. But not much, so your best bet to keep it health is to wear a pair of wraparound sunglasses when you're outdoors.
It also plays a key role in vision. As light enters your eye, it gets refracted, or bent, by the cornea’s curved edge. This helps determine how well your eye can focus on objects close-up and far away.
If your cornea is damaged by disease, infection, or an injury, the resulting scars can affect your vision. They might block or distort light as it enters your eye.
To understand potential problems, it’s good to know about parts of the cornea. There are total 6 different layers in cornea.
Three main layers are:
Epithelium : The outermost layer. It stops outside matter from getting into your eye. It also absorbs oxygen and nutrients from tears.
Stroma: The middle and thickest layer lies behind the epithelium. It’s made up mostly of water and proteins that give it an elastic but solid form.
Endothelium: This is a single layer of cells on the very back of the stroma. The aqueous humor, a clear fluid in the front chamber of your eye, is in constant contact with this layer. It works like a pump. The stroma absorbs excess liquid and the endothelium pulls it out. Without this function, the stroma would become waterlogged. Your cornea would get opaque and hazy, and so would your vision.
Symptoms of Cornea Problems
The term corneal disease refers to many conditions that affect this part of your eye. These include infections, tissue breakdown, and other disorders you get from your parents.
Your cornea usually heals itself after most minor injuries or infections. But during the healing process, you might notice symptoms like:
• Blurred vision
• Extreme sensitivity to light
These symptoms also come with other eye problems, so they may signal a more serious issue that requires special treatment. If you have them, go to your eye doctor.